Papiamentu vowels (as described by linguists)

re-posted from 2010-10-12

Here are clippings from three ‘reliable sources’ describing the vowels of Papiamento / Papiamentu. Use these sources for your own studies or as ammunition in Wikipedia edit wars. (Click on the thumbnail images to see larger versions.)

First, from Ortografija di papiamento (1984) by Mario Dijkhoff, a native speaker of the language:

Second, from Die Verschriftung des Papiamentu by Philippe Maurer (appeared in Zum Stand der Kodifizierung Romanischer Kleinsprachen, 1991)

Third, from Observaciones sobre el sistema vocálico del papiamentu by Maxim Kerkhof:

All three of these sources use the symbols of the Alfabèt Fonétiko Internashonal.